(c) NaOH                Sol: (a, b) Solubility decreases down the group because hydration enthalpy decreases more rapidly than lattice enthalpy. Arrange these in the order of decreasing solubility, and give reasons for each of the arrangement 7) In aqueous solution, the solubility of the alkali metal ions is given as follows: Li < Na Cu(OH) 2 > Pb(OH) 2 > Cd(OH) 2. In order to know what dissolves and what does not dissolve, there are rules which we can follow. Q24. [Alkalies are more acidic than alkaline earth metals. 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Sol:(i) Both Li and Mg are harder and lighter than other elements in their groups. (c) Ca(OH)2 (c) CaCl2 . Sol: The reactivity of alkali metals towards oxygen increases down the group as the atomic size increases. (b) CaO                    (c) high hydration enthalpy for lithium ion. A substance which gives brick red flame and breaks down on heating to give oxygen and brown gas is (i) CaC03 – Manufacture of high quality paper (a) BaCl2.2H20 (d) Ba(OH)2 Q2. (c) Sr                         Except BeO (predominantly covalent), all other oxides are ionic and their lattice energy decreases as the size of cation increases. Several sodium compounds find use in industries. (a)    NaHCO3.10H2O Hence, more is the stability of oxide formed, less will be stability of carbonates. Sol: (i) Nature of oxides – Alkali metals form M20, M202 and M02 types of oxides. (iii) sodium peroxide dissolves in water? Which of the following elements does not form hydride by direct heating with dihydrogen? (d) CaC03. (b) quick lime Examples: KOH, NaOH. LiF is very less soluble in water due to its high lattice energy. (c) Hydration enthalpy (d) Electron-gain enthalpy Thus, Cs has the lowest melting point (28.5°C) and will melt at 30°C. (iii) Quick limeIt is used:(a) in the purification of sugar and in the manufacture of dyestuffs,(b) in the manufacture of bleaching powder, slaked lime and lime colours. It has only four electrons in valence shell and can accept two pairs of electrons from neighbouring chlorine atoms to complete their octet.In the vapour state, beryllium chloride exists as a dimer (Be2Cl4) which dissociates at 1200 K into monomer (BeCl2) which has a linear shape. (d) It is used in the manufacture of cement. which dissociates at 1200 K into monomer (BeCl. Q47. Q44. Which of the carbonates given below is unstable in air and is kept in C02 atmosphere to avoid decomposition. As electropositive character increases down the group, stability of carbonates and bicarbonates increases. Each atom has particular energy gap between ground and excited energy ‘ level. (d)A is hot correct but R is correct. We cannot obtain sodium carbonate directly by treating the solution containing (NH4)2C03 with sodium chloride as both the products formed on reaction, i.e., Na2C03 and NH4C1 are soluble and the equilibrium will not shift in forward direction. Amphoteric hydroxides react with both alkalies and acids. (b) Beryllium sulphate is readily soluble in water as the greater hydration enthalpy of Be2+ overcomes the lattice enthalpy factor. These become wet oh keeping in air. Which of the following metal hydroxides is the least basic? (d)A is not correct but R is correct. (a) Be(OH)2 Matching Column Type Questions In the solid state, BeCl2 has polymeric chain structure. The oxides are very stable due to high lattice energy and are used as refractory material. Q12.When sodium is dissolved in liquid ammonia, a solution of deep blue colour is obtained. (iv) Ca-Brick red (i) All alkali metals except Li form ionic compounds. 2021 Zigya Technology Labs Pvt. Q8. Be > Mg > Ca > Sr > Ba. This is due to the stabilization of large anions by larger cations. Lithium resembles magnesium in some of its properties. Most hydroxides (OH -) are insoluble. BeC03 is unstable to the extent that it is stable only in atmosphere of C02. Q6. Q16. Mention the oxides formed by Li, Na and K. Multiple Choice Questions a concentrated solution of NaCl), ammonia and carbondioxide are the raw materials. (ii) Na-Yellow Thus, BaC03 is the most stable. Q19.Which of the following statements is true about Ca(OH)2? (b) sodium ion [Due to very high hydration energy the resulting E° is most negative]. (b)CaC03 (c) Ca2+ ions                                            Q4. Metal hydroxides such as \(\ce{Fe(OH)3}\) and \(\ce{Al(OH)3}\) react with acids and bases, and they are called amphoteric hydroxide.In reality, \(\ce{Al(OH)3}\) should be formulated as \(\ce{Al(H2O)3(OH)3}\), and this neutral substance has a very low solubility. (d) Large atomic size. The reducing power of a metal depends oh various factors. Which of the following alkali metals reacts with water least vigorously? (d) Ba In what ways lithium shows similarities to magnesium in its chemical behaviour?OrList four properties to show the diagonal relationship between lithium and magnesium. NCERT Exemplar ProblemsMathsPhysicsChemistryBiology. Because BeO and MgO are much more inert than the other group 2 oxides, they are used as refractory materials in applications involving high temperatures and mechanical stress. Due to their low solubility, some bases, such as alkaline earth hydroxides, can be used when the solubility factor is not taken into account. (a) setting time of cement becomes less. Books. (b) Mg                      Although ionization enthalpy of Li is the highest among alkali metals, it is more than compensated by the high enthalpy of hydration. (b) MgC03 Q26. All these hydroxides are highly soluble in water and thermally stable except lithium hydroxide. [Calcium oxalate is insoluble in water.] required for electronic excitation and de-excitation. The Questions and Answers of What is the solubility order of fluorides for alkaline earth metals? Alkali metals hydroxides being strongly basic react with all acids forming salts. It is used in white washing due to disinfectant nature. Gypsum (CaS04 -2H20) is added to the components to increase the setting time of cement so that it gets sufficiently hardened. Amphoteric Hydroxides. (b)     Calcium nitrate More the lattice energy, lesser will … Arrange alkali metal carbonate in increasing order of solubility. Be(OH)2 + 20H–→[Be(OH)4]2, Q11. Q25. (b) High negative standard electrode potential. (a) BeCl2 Sol: (b) Due to small size of Li+ and F– ions, lattice enthalpy is much higher than hydration enthalpy and hence LiF is least soluble among alkali metal fluorides. If you have any query regarding NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The S-Block Elements, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest. Q17. oxide soluble in aqueous NaOH is : 2.6k LIKES. The solubility of alkali metal hydroxides follow the order LiOH < NaOH < KOH < RbOH < CsOH LiOH > NaOH > KOH > RbOH < CsOH LiOH > CsOH > RbOH > NaOH > KOH Which of the following are the correct reasons for anomalous behaviour of lithium? (2).The only by product of the reaction is calcium chloride (CaCl2). Q34. What is the chemical formula of A? (b) setting time of cement increases. Explain. Metals form basic hydroxides. (i) Cs – Blue Q3. Q22. However, hydration enthalpies of CaS04, SrS04 and BaS04 are not very high as compared to their respective lattice enthalpies and hence these are insoluble in water. Not all metal hydroxides behave the same way - that is precipitate as hydroxide solids. Extent of hydration decreases from Mg to Ba, i.e., MgCl2.6H20, CaCl2.6H20, BaCl2 2H20, SrCl2.2H20. (ii) Ca(OH)2 – Used in white washing (a) ionic nature of lithium fluoride. Sol: No. The elements are Lithium, Rubidium, sodium, Potassium and cesium. This is a trend which holds for the whole Group, and applies whichever set of data you choose. (ii) The solubility of oxides of al­kali metals increases down the group. 2NaOH + H 2 SO 4 → Na 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O Hence, the order is: Q9. In the synthesis of sodium carbonate, the recovery of ammonia is done by treating NH4C1 with Ca(OH)2. When C02 is bubbled through an aqueous solution of A, the solution tons milky. Short Answer Type Questions The alkali metal hydroxides form white crystals that are hygroscopic and readily soluble in water, generating large amounts of heat upon dissolution. (a)    Magnesium nitrate                        The thermal stability; of these carbonates increases down the group, i.e., from Be to Ba, All alkaline earth metals (except Be and Mg) impart a characteristic colour to the Bunsen flame. b. Above 373 K, it becomes completely anhydrous white powder called soda ash. Thus, Li has the most negative standard electrode potential (-3.04 V) and hence Li is the strongest reducing agent in aqueous solution mainly because of its high enthalpy of hydration. (a) Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanation of A. Which of the following statements is correct about these halides? In vapour state, above 1200 K, it exists as a monomer having linear structure and zero dipole moment. . (iv) CaS04 – Dentistry, ornamental work. Which of the following compounds are used for textile industry? The compound NaNO 3 is soluble, but PbSO 4 is insoluble. The basic character of alkali metal hydroxide Hence, they require high excitation energy and are not excited by the energy of the flame with the result that no flame colour is shown by them. Be and Mg atoms, due to their small size, bind their electrons more strongly (because of .higher effective nuclear charge). (a) Beryllium is not readily attacked by acids because of the presence of an oxide film on the surface of the metal. Formation of Salts with Acids. Since Li has the smallest size, its enthalpy of hydration is the highest among alkali metals. (c) Formation of oxosalts Doubtnut is better on App. (b) BaCl2 .4H20 (d) shining surface is obtained. Sol: (a) Unlike other alkali metal carbonates, the carbonate of lithium decomposes on heating to form its oxide. point of halides follows order: Fluorides > Chlorides > Bromides > iodides. Which of the following alkali metals reacts with water least vigorously? Sol: (a) Due to high ionization enthalpy and small size, Be does not react with hydrogen by direct heating. The solubility of metal halides depends on their nature, lattice enthalpy and hydration enthalpy of the individual ions. is done on EduRev Study Group by NEET Students. Q30. In the Solvay process, can we obtain sodium carbonate directly by treating the solution containing (NH4)2C03 with sodium chloride? Q7. Identify the correct’ formula of halides of alkaline earth metals from the following. Sol: (a) Sodium carbonate is synthesised by Solvay or ammonia soda process. It has only four electrons in valence shell and can accept two pairs of electrons from neighbouring chlorine atoms to complete their octet. ) … https://www.zigya.com/share/Q0hFTk5UMTExMzUzMTQ=. The correct order of the mobility of the alkali metal ions in aqueous solutions Rb+ > K+ > Na+ > Li+ due to following order of hydration energy of these ions Li+ > Na+ > K+ > Rb+ and due to hydration of ion, mobility decreases. (b) Mg2+ions’ (d) SO24_ ions (c) Beryllium exhibits coordination number more than four. (a) Mg(OH)2 (b) Ca(OH)2               (c) Sr(OH)2              (d) Ba(OH)2 (c) NaOH (iii) CaO – Manufacture of sodium carbonate from caustic soda This is because with increase in size of the halide ion, lattice energy increases. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. Suggest the factor which makes Li, the strongest reducing agent in aqueous solution. This discussion on What is the solubility order of fluorides for alkaline earth metals? Their basic strength increases from LiOH to CsOH due to a corresponding decresae in the I.E., of the metal in a group,i.e., the order:- Q42. Na2Z + M2+ → MZ + 2Na+ (M = Ca, Mg) where, Z = Al2Si208H20. The solubility increases down the column as the alkali metal ions become larger and the lattice enthalpies decrease. (ii) Sodium carbonateIt is used:(a) in laundries and in softening of water as washing soda,(b) in the manufacture of glass, caustic soda, soap powders etc. Q29. (ii) Both Li and Mg form nitrides  - Li directly and Mg on burning in nitrogen. (d) NaHC03 (d)BaC03. (ii) The solubility and the nature of oxides, of Group 2 elements. A chemical A is used for the preparation of washing soda to recover ammonia. Setting of cement is an exothermic process and involves hydration of calcium aluminates and , silicates. As a result, Li has the least reactivity but the reactivity increases as the melting point of alkali metals decreases down the group from Li to Cs. (ii) Na – Strongest monoacidic base Sol: (i) All the alkaline earth metals form carbonates (MC03). In this process, brine (i.e. (c) Na2C03.H20 BeC03 < MgC03 < CaC03 < SrC03 < BaC03 (iii) All alkali metals form oxo salts such as carbonates, sul­phates and nitrates. Which of the following compounds are readily soluble in water? 56Ba = Is2,2s2,2p,3s2, 3p6, 3d10,4s2,4p6,4d10, 5s2, 5p6,6s2. The carbonates of group-2 metals and that of lithium decompose on heating, forming an oxide and carbon dioxide . (iv) Ba – Insoluble sulphate (c)     Barium nitrate                                Sol: Electrode potential is a measure of the tendency of an element to lose electrons in the aqueous solution. Sol: (d) Thermal stability of metal carbonates increases as the electropositive character of the metal or the basicity of the metal hydroxide increases from Be(OH)2 to Ba(OH)2. The hydrates are MgCl2.6H20, CaCl2.6H20, SrCl2.6H20 and BaCl2.2H20. Metal carbonates decompose on heating to give metal oxide and carbon dioxide. (c) Tendency to form hydrate decreases from calcium to barium. (ii) The solubility of oxides of Mg, – Ca, Sr and Ba increases from Mg to Ba. Beryllium chloride has different structures in solid and vapour state. Sol: (b) Raw materials for cement are limestone, clay and gypsum. Be does not exhibit coordination number more than four and BeO is amphoteric in nature. The different colours arise due to different energies . The solubility of metal halides depends on their nature, lattice enthalpy and hydration enthalpy of the individual ions. Their melting points and boiling points follow the trend – fluoride > chloride > bromide > iodide. (b) NaCl   Q46. (b) It is a light blue solid. (a) lime water                                           (c) BaS04                 6H20 Sol: (a) BeC03 is kept in the atmosphere of C02, otherwise it will decompose to give its oxide and carbon dioxide. (b) Can absorb moisture from air. , which are present but not involved. 400+ SHARES. These movements of electrons (electronic excitation and de-excitation) requires energy. Q41.Match the elements given in Column I with the properties mentioned in Column II. The order of decreasing ionization enthalpy in alkali metals is, (a) Na > Li > K > Rb (b) Rb < Na < K < Li, (c) Li > Na > K > Rb (d) K < Li < Na < Rb. Sol: (d) On heating washing soda, it loses its water of crystallization. Solubility of the hydroxides. Why does the solubility of alkaline earth metal hydroxides in water increase down the group ? The ease of formation of alkali metal halides increases from Li to Cs 17. Thus, Mg(OH)2 is least basic. We all know that the hydroxides of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg (little, but is a strong base), Ca (a little), Sr and Ba are soluble. (c) Both A and R are not correct. (ii) Ionization enthalpy (a) Na2C03             required for electronic excitation and de-excitation. Sol: (c) Ionization enthalpy decreases with increase in Size of the atom in a group. The sublimation enthalpies of alkali metals are almost similar. Alkali metals hydroxides are very strong bases, highly soluble in water and are not decomposed on heating.However, LiOH decomposes on heating to give because latter is more stable than former. (ii) All the alkaline earth metals form oxides of formula MO. (a) Act as dehydrating agents. (a) CaCl2 Sol: (a, b) Be does not exhibit coordination number more than four and BeO is amphoteric in nature. Q40.What is the structure of BeCl2 molecule in gaseous and solid state? Compare the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals with respect to (a) ionisation enthalpy, (b) basicity of oxides and (c ) solubility of hydroxides. The formula of soda ash is Solubility: The solubility of the sulphates in water decreases down the groups i.e. (d) low ionization enthalpy of lithium atom. (b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. Explain. Which of the following alkali metals is expected to melt if the room temperature rises to 30°C? (b) Na (c) K (d) Cs Sol: (a) Both melting point and heat of reaction of alkali metals with water decrease down the group from Li to Cs. Sol: The hydration enthalpies of BeS04 and MgS04 are quite high because of small size of Be2+ and Mg2+ ions. Which of the metal carbonates is most stable thermally? Match the compounds given in Column I with their uses mentioned in Column II. The order of decreasing ionisation enthalpy in alkali metals is (i) Na > Li > K > Rb (ii) Rb < Na < K < Li (iii) Li > Na > K > Rb (iv) K < Li < Na < Rb 9. (b)Na2C03.2H20 (1) with Ca(OH)2 formed in eq. Sol: (i → c); (ii →d); (iii → b); (iv→a) bonded by covalent bonds while the other two by coordinate bonds. (d) BaCO3 All these metals have one valence electron. ‘Which of the following group 2 metal hydroxides is soluble in sodium hydroxide? Metal Oxide Basicity Group II metal oxides become more basic as you go down the column. (b) MgS04               (i) Sublimation enthalpy Q1. (a) Sublimation enthalpy (b) Ionisation enthalpy ‘ 232, Block C-3, Janakpuri, New Delhi, Choose the correct option out of the choices given below each question. (b) Nature of oxides and their solubility in water Name an element’ from Group 2 which forms an amphoteric oxide and awater soluble sulphate. Except be and Mg atoms, due to high lattice energy impart colour the! Metals hydroxides being strongly basic react with all acids forming salts a result, BeS04 highly... Form carbonates ( MC03 ) of NaCl ), all other oxides are basic and basic nature from....4H20 ( c ) CaCl2 air and is kept in the Solvay ammonia process Na – strongest monoacidic base alkalies... 2021 with Study plan & know step by step process to register application form to the Bunsen flame the materials! 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